Skill Level: 2
Category: Outdoor Industries
Original Honor: 1929
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Wiki.pathfindersonline.org Article/Answer Key
Originating Institution: General Conference
- List the components of soil. Why is soil important to plants?
- Explain the difference between clay, sand, and loam soils. List 3 crops that grow well in each.
- Test the germination of three varieties of seeds--100 seeds of each variety. Record germination percentage after 3, 4, and 5 days.
- Explain how the plants obtain nutrients and convert them to food. Explain the difference between primary, secondary and micro nutrients.
- Name and identify ten common weeds of your community, and tell how best to eliminate them using natural or chemical methods.
- Identify six common insect pests or diseases. Tell what plants they usually affect, and how to eliminate or prevent their occurrence.
- Locate two sources of Agricultural weather information. How is this information helpful to the farmer?
- What is erosion? How can it be prevented?
- Know the purpose of the following: plowing, cultivating, harrowing, disking, draining, irrigation and harvesting.
a. Plowing - The primary purpose of plowing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops, allowing them to break down. It also aerates the soil, and allows it to hold moisture better. In modern use, a plowed field is typically left to dry out, and is then harrowed before planting.
b. Disking - Disking is often carried out on fields to follow the rough finish left by plowing operations. The purpose of this is generally to break up clods and lumps of soil and to provide a finer finish, a good tilth or soil structure that is suitable for seeding and planting operations.
c. Cultivating - A cultivator is a farm implement for stirring and pulverizing the soil, either before planting or to remove weeds and to aerate and loosen the soil after the crop has begun to grow.
d. Irrigation - Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil for assisting in growing crops. In crop production it is mainly used in dry areas and in periods of rainfall shortfalls, but also to protect plants against frost.
e. Harvesting - The purpose of harvesting is to collect the salable product grown in a field when it reaches maturity.
- Name and identify ten common birds of your locality, and state their value to the farmer.
- Assist in planting, cultivating, and harvesting at least four different crops. Maintain a log of work done and problems encountered.
- Visit your local cooperative or government farm service and find out how they help the farmer. Write a report on your visit.